1. Photographic evidence suggests that liquid water once existed in great quantity
on the surface of Mars. Two types of flow features are seen: runoff channels and
outflow channels. Runoff channels are found in the southern highlands. These flow
features are extensive systems—sometimes hundreds of kilometers in total length—of
interconnecting, twisting channels that seem to merge into larger, wider channels.
They bear a strong resemblance to river systems on Earth, and geologists think that
they are dried-up beds of long-gone rivers that once carried rainfall on Mars from the
mountains down into the valleys. Runoff channels on Mars speak of a time 4 billion
years ago (the age of the Martian highlands), when the atmosphere was thicker, the
surface warmer, and liquid water widespread.
2. Outflow channels are probably relics of catastrophic flooding on Mars long ago. They
appear only in equatorial regions and generally do not form extensive interconnected
networks. Instead, they are probably the paths taken by huge volumes of water
draining from the southern highlands into the northern plains. The onrushing water
arising from these flash floods likely also formed the odd teardrop-shaped “islands”
(resembling the miniature versions seen in the wet sand of our beaches at low
tide) that have been found on the plains close to the ends of the outflow channels.
Judging from the width and depth of the channels, the flow rates must have been
truly enormous—perhaps as much as a hundred times greater than the 105 tons
per second carried by the great Amazon river. Flooding shaped the outflow channels
approximately 3 billion years ago, about the same time as the northern volcanic
3. Some scientists speculate that Mars may have enjoyed an extended early period
during which rivers, lakes, and perhaps even oceans adorned its surface. A 2003
Mars Global Surveyor image shows what mission specialists think may be a delta—a
fan-shaped network of channels and sediments where a river once flowed into a
larger body of water, in this case a lake filling a crater in the southern highlands.
Other researchers go even further, suggesting that the data provide evidence for
large open expanses of water on the early Martian surface. A computer-generated
view of the Martian north polar region shows the extent of what may have been an
ancient ocean covering much of the northern lowlands. The Hellas Basin, which
measures some 3,000 kilometers across and has a floor that lies nearly 9 kilometers
below the basin’s rim, is another candidate for an ancient Martian sea.
4. These ideas remain controversial. Proponents point to features such as the terraced
“beaches” shown in one image, which could conceivably have been left behind as a
lake or ocean evaporated and the shoreline receded. But detractors maintain that
the terraces could also have been created by geological activity, perhaps related
to the geologic forces that depressed the Northern Hemisphere far below the
level of the south, in which case they have nothing whatever to do with Martian
water. Furthermore, Mars Global Surveyor data released in 2003 seem to indicate
that the Martian surface contains too few carbonate rock layers—layers containing
compounds of carbon and oxygen—that should have been formed in abundance in
an ancient ocean. Their absence supports the picture of a cold, dry Mars that never
experienced the extended mild period required to form lakes and oceans. However,
more recent data imply that at least some parts of the planet did in fact experience
long periods in the past during which liquid water existed on the surface.
5. Aside from some small-scale gullies (channels) found since 2000, which are
inconclusive, astronomers have no direct evidence for liquid water anywhere on the
surface of Mars today, and the amount of water vapor in the Martian atmosphere is
tiny. Yet even setting aside the unproven hints of ancient oceans, the extent of the
outflow channels suggests that a huge total volume of water existed on Mars in the
past. Where did all the water go? The answer may be that virtually all the water on
Mars is now locked in the permafrost layer under the surface, with more contained in
the planet’s polar caps.